Basketball is a hard, physical sport with a lot of fouls. However, while most infractions are committed by the defense, the offense can commit them as well. There are quite a few offensive fouls, and they each come with their own qualifications.
The following article breaks all of them down, as well as how they occur, in great detail. That will create a larger understanding of basketball, and give insight into one of the lesser-known aspects of the sport.
The Types of Fouls
Before getting into offensive fouls, it’s first key to understand fouls as a whole. Fouls are violations that stop the game and lead to a penalty. They either reset the play clock for the offense, award the fouled player free throws, or give possession to the opposing team.
There are a few different types of fouls (common, technical, flagrant) and they can happen on both sides of the ball. Common fouls, as their name suggests, are the most frequent.
They occur when a player accidentally fouls another during a shot, drive, or rebound. Blocking, shooting fouls, charges, over the back, and illegal screens are all examples of common fouls. They either lead to free throws, stoppage of play, or free throws.
Technical fouls are fouls that interrupt the spirit of the game (such as yelling at a referee or slamming a chair) while flagrant fouls are much more violent versions of common fouls. Both lead to free throws. The team who got fouled also gets to keep possession of the ball.
Out of all three above categories, offensive fouls are almost exclusively common fouls. They don’t typically go beyond that, as most are accidental or the result of good defensive play.
Charges and Illegal Screens
There are three big offensive fouls, but charges are the most common. That occurs when an offensive player runs over or through a set defensive player who is positioned correctly and has established space on the court.
In order to draw a charge, a defender needs to have their feet set, not be in the restricted zone half-circle at the bottom of the key, and be squared up with an oncoming offensive player. The offensive player must then make contact with the defender by running through them.
If all three of those criteria are met, the offensive player gets a charge.
Beyond a charge, players can set illegal screens. That can happen in one of two ways. First, an offensive player moves into a defender after they have established position for their screen. That includes stepping into a defender as they run by or never being set in the first place.
The other way an illegal screen occurs is if an offensive player sets a screen so close to a defensive player that the defensive player doesn’t have any room to move, or they have no choice but to run into the screen. There has to be at least one foot of space.
While the above two infractions have concrete definitions, the third offensive foul (illegal contact) casts a much wider net. Illegal contact doesn’t occur that often, but it’s pretty easy to spot.
This foul refers to any situation where an offensive player initiates contact with a defender in order to get an edge. Where shooting fouls, reaching, and blocking all occur when the defensive player hits the offensive player, this happens when the offensive player strikes first.
Forms of illegal contact include push-offs, body bumps, and lowering the shoulder. That can be when an offensive player reaches out and uses their arm to get space, pushes a defender out of the way on a drive, or simply uses their body to slam them out of the way down on the block.
All players have a certain amount of contact they’re allowed to work with. Illegal contact happens when an offensive player goes beyond that by getting egregiously open or physically moving the defender out of the way.
Also note that, while rare, offensive fouls can move into the flagrant category. If an offensive player hits the defender, or runs into them extremely hard in a way that isn’t a charge, the infractions can be upgraded to something more severe.
Offensive fouls aren’t as common or as apparent as defensive ones. Even so, they are still a key part of the game. They are typically the result of efficient defense, but also come about from sloppy play. In both situations, they lead to a turnover and give the defense the ball.
As such, they are something to be aware of when playing, and something to watch for when spectating. It’s easy to assume that the defense is the only one that can push the boundaries of the game, but basketball is a bit more nuanced than it first appears.